Selected Publications
Paul F.J. Eagles
Professor Eagles
Introduction

Paul Eagles is an environmental planner with a broad interest in the application of applied ecology and planning theory to environmental conservation. Professionally, as a planner, he has a long-standing interest in the planning of national parks and other forms of protected areas. His professorial appointments were maintained to the School of Planning and the Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies at the University of Waterloo from 1979 to 2014. He was also appointed as a distinguished visiting professor of Environmental Science at Murdoch University, Perth, Australia (2013-2015).


He maintains an active international research and professional program in environmental planning, with an emphasis in park management and ecotourism. He undertook research in many countries, including: Australia, Belize, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Finland, Kenya, Latvia, Lesotho, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, the U.S.A. and Venezuela. He is currently is a member of the Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist group of the World Commission on Protected Areas and a member of the Health People - Healthy Parks subgroup of the World Commission on Protected Areas..

From a range of professional and research interests in environmental planning, he has 383 publications, including 132 refereed. Professor Eagles has also given 141 conference presentations, plus 86 to professional groups, and 50 to community groups. Select publications, representative of several different areas of environmental planning, are listed below.

Publications

Park Planning and Management

Introduction: Names like Banff, Jasper, Algonquin and Head-Smashed-In-Buffalo-Jump are well known and loved in Canada. These four special parks are representative of thousands that have been established by Canadian governments over the last two centuries. With almost 8% of the country in parks and protected areas, it is critical that appropriate park planning and management be undertaken. Since my first employment in parks as a park naturalist in Rondeau Provincial Park in Ontario in 1970, followed by employment in Turkey Point Provincial Park in 1971and Bronte Provincial Park from 1971-1974, I have been interested in advancing the practice of park planning and management. Subsequently I worked in various aspects of park management in over 25 countries. These publications outline contributions to the field.

McWilliam, Wendy, Robert Brown, Paul Eagles and Mark Seasons. 2015. Evaluation of planning policy s for protecting green infrastructure ecosystem services from loss and degradation due to residential encroachment. Land Use Policy (In press)

 

Lemieux, Christopher J., Sean T. Doherty, Paul F.J. Eagles, Joyce Gould, Glen T. Hvenegaard, Elizabeth (Lisa) Nisbet and Mark W. Groulx. 2015. Healthy Outside-Healthy Inside: the human health and well-being benefits of Alberta’s protected areas - towards a benefits-based management agenda. Canadian Council on Ecological Areas (CCEA) Occasional Paper No. 20. CCEA Secretariat, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. vi + 71 pp.(This paper can be found on the Canadian Council on Ecological Areas (CCEA) website in both a high resolution and low resolution format).

 

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Maria Legault. 2015. Permits, Licenses, Leases, and Concessions for Adventure Tourism in National Parks. Chapter 3-1 in R. Black and K. Bricker, (eds.), Adventure Programming and Travel in the 21st Century, Venture Publishing.

 

Eagles, Paul F. J., Julia Coburn and Bobbie Swartman. 2014. Plan Quality and Plan Detail of Visitor and Tourism Policies in Ontario Park Management Plans. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism DOI: 10.1016/j.jort.2014.09.006

 

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2014. Fiscal Implications of Moving to Tourism Finance for Parks: Ontario Provincial Parks. Managing Leisure 19(1): 1-17.

Valdivieso, Juan Carlos, Paul F. J. Eagles and Joan Carles Gil. 2014. Efficient management capacity evaluation of tourism in protected areas. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2014.937479

Gebhardt, A. and  Paul F.J. Eagles. 2014. Factors leading to the Implementation of Strategic Plans for Parks and Recreation. Managing Leisure DOI: 10.1080/13606719.2014.895127

Shields, Brooke, Susan A. Moore and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2013. Governance Models for Protected Areas in Western Australia. School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, South St, Murdoch, WA AUSTRALIA

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2013. Research Priorities in Park Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.785554

Eagles, Paul F. J., Will van Hemessen, and Maria Legault. 2013. Advanced booking behaviour of park visitors: Ontario Provincial Parks. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 22(8): 832-850.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Francesc Romagosa, Windekind C. Buteau-Duitschaever, Mark E. Havitz, Troy Glover and Bonnie McCutcheon. 2013. Good governance in protected areas: an evaluation of stakeholders’ perceptions in British Columbia and Ontario Provincial Parks. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20: 1-20.

Lemieux, Christopher J. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2012. Last Chance Tourism in Canada’s Protected Areas: Management Implications and Emerging Ethical Considerations. Chapter 14 in H. Lemelin, J. Dawson and E. J. Stewart (Eds), Last Chance Tourism: Adapting Tourism Opportunities in a Changing World. Routledge, London, UK.

Eagles Paul F. J and Jeff Hallo. 2012. Public Parks in Canada and the United States. Chapter 6 in Introduction to Recreation and Leisure, 2nd edition, Human Kinetics, Campaign, Illinois, USA.

McWilliam, W.J., Eagles, P., Seasons, M, Brown, R. 2012. Evaluation of planning and management approaches for limiting residential encroachment impacts within forest edges: a Southern Ontario case study. Urban Ecosystems 15:753–772

 

Lemieux, Christopher J., Paul F.J. Eagles, D. Scott Slocombe, Sean T. Doherty, Susan J. Elliott, and Steven E. Mock. 2012. The Human Health and Well-being Benefits of Canada’s Protected Areas: an Exploratory Analysis of Visitor Perceptions. PARKS 18(1): 71-85.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Windekind C. Buteau-Duitschaever, Mark E. Havitz, Troy D. Glover, Francesc Romagosa, Bonnie McCutcheon, and Jasveen Rattan. 2012. Non-Government-Organization Members Perceptions of Governance:  A Comparison between Ontario and British Columbia Provincial Parks Management Models. Leisure/Loisir 36(3): 269-287.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Francesc Romagosa, Windekind C. Buteau-Duitschaever, Mark E. Havitz, Troy Glover and Bonnie McCutcheon. 2012. Good governance in protected areas: an evaluation of stakeholders’ perceptions in British Columbia and Ontario Provincial Parks. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20: 1-20.

McWilliam, W.J., Eagles, P., Seasons, M, Brown, R. 2012. Evaluation of planning and management approaches for limiting residential encroachment impacts within forest edges: a Southern Ontario case study. Urban Ecosystems 14(1): DOI 10.1007/s11252-012-0232-9.

Romagosa, Francesc, Paul F. J. Eagles, and Windekind Buteau-Duitschaever. 2012. Evaluación de la obernanza en los espacios naturales protegidos. El caso de la Columbia Británica y Ontario (Canadá). Anales de Geografia 32(1): 133.151.

McWilliam, W.J., Eagles, P., Seasons, M, Brown, R. 2011. Effectiveness of Boundary Structures in Limiting Residential Encroachment into Urban Forests. Landscape Research 37(3): 301-325.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Windekind Buteau-Duitschaever, Bonnie McCutcheon, Mark Havitz, and Troy Glover. 2011.  Park Staff’s Perceptions of Governance: A Comparison between Ontario and British Columbia Provincial Parks. Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration 29(4): 1-19.

Maple, Laura C., Paul F. J. Eagles, and Heather Rolfe. 2010. Birdwatchers’ specialization characteristics and national park tourism planning. Journal of Ecotourism 9(3): 219-238.

McWilliam, Wendy, Paul F. J. Eagles, Mark Seasons, and Robert Brown. 2010. Assessing the degradation effects of local residents on urban forests in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 36(6): 253-260.

Buteau-Duitschaever, W, C., McCutcheon, B., Eagles, P. F. J. Havitz, M. E., and Glover, T. D. 2010. Park Visitors’ Perceptions of Governance: A Comparison between Ontario and British Columbia Provincial Parks Management Models. Tourism Review 65(4): 31-50.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Mark E. Havitz, Bonnie L. McCutcheon, Windekind Buteau-Duitschaever, and Troy D. Glover. 2010. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study. Environmental Management 17(02): 231-248.

Eagles, Paul. F. J. 2010. Changing Societal Values and Carrying Capacity in Park Management: Fifty years at Pinery Provincial Park in Ontario. Leisure/Loisir 34(2): 189-206

McWilliam, Wendy, Paul Eagles, Mark Seasons, and Robert Brown. 2010. The housing-forest interface: testing structural approaches for protecting suburban natural systems following development. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening: doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.12.002.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2009. Review of the Ontario Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act, 2006. Canada: SAMPAA.

Eagles, Paul. F. J. 2009. Governance Criteria in Parks and Protected Areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(1): 1-18.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Windekind Buteau-Duitschaever. 2009. Options for Visitor Monitoring for National Marine Conservation Areas in Canada. Parks Canada, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. 98 pp.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2008. Investigating Governance within the Management Models used in Park Tourism. Proceedings of the Tourism and Travel Research Association - Canada, Victoria, British Columbia.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2008. Governance Models for Parks, Recreation and Tourism. Pages 39-61 in K. S. Hanna, D. A. Clark and D. S. Slocombe, Transforming Parks: Protected Area Policy and Management in a Changing World. Routledge, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain.

Rollins, R., P.F.J. Eagles and P. Dearden. 2008. Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas. Chapter 12 Pages 314-341 in P. Dearden and R. Rollins, Parks and Protected Areas in Canada:  Planning and Management. Third Edition. Oxford University Press, Toronto, Ontario.

McWilliam, W.J., P.F.J. Eagles, and M.L. Seasons. 2007. Edge Effects within Municipal Forests: Are Municipal Policies Effective in Limiting Edge-resident Encroachment in Suburban Woodlands? CMHC Research Grant Program: Ottawa. 31 pp

Marquez, Janet and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2007. Working Towards Policy and Guideline Creation for Cruise Ship Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Tourism in Marine Environments 4 (2-3): 85-96.

Hyslop, Kris E. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2007. Visitor Management Policy of National Parks, National Wildlife Areas and Refuges in Canada and the United States: A Policy Analysis of Public Documents . Leisure/Loisir 31 (2): 475:500

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2007. Governance Models in Parks and Protected Areas. Chapter 3 in Transforming Parks: Protected Area Policy and Management in a Changing World. Spon Press, UK (a division of Routledge).

Su, Dan, Geoff Wall and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2007. Emerging Governance Approaches for Tourism in the Protected Areas of China. Environmental Management 39 (6): 749-759.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Yuging Ge, Angela Gilmore, Denise A. Keltie, Kimberley A. Rae, Hong Sun, Amy K Thede, Meagan L. Wilson and Jennifer A. Woronok. 2006. Tourism and Recreation System Planning in Alberta Provincial Parks. The 18th Annual Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, Bolton Landing, New York, USA.

Holland, Stephen M. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2005. Public Parks in Canada and the United States. Chapter 6 in Introduction to Recreation and Leisure, Human Kinetics, Campaign, Illinois, USA.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Elizabeth Halpenny and Ron McCarville. 2004. Best Practice Study for Sustainable Tourism at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Alberta Provincial Parks Board of Management, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. 80 pp.

Sildoja, Jake and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. Campsite use levels compared to campsite attributes in Emily Provincial Park, Ontario. In Neil W. P. Munro, Phil Dearden, Tom B. Herman, Karen Beazley and Soren Bondrup-Neilsen, Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11 - 16 May 2003. Canada: SAMPAA.

Carr, Dawn and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. The commitment gap: lessons learned about employee commitment in the Parks Canada Agency. In Neil W. P. Munro, Phil Dearden, Tom B. Herman, Karen Beazley and Soren Bondrup-Neilsen, Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11 - 16 May 2003. Canada: SAMPAA.

Bowman, Margaret E. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. Tourism Spending in Algonquin Provincial Park. In Neil W. P. Munro, Phil Dearden, Tom B. Herman, Karen Beazley and Soren Bondrup-Neilsen, Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11 - 16 May 2003. Canada: SAMPAA.

Halpenny, Elizabeth, Margaret E. Bowman, Donald Aubrey and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. Cooperative Management in National Parks. In Neil W. P. Munro, Phil Dearden, Tom B. Herman, Karen Beazley and Soren Bondrup-Neilsen, Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11 - 16 May 2003. Canada: SAMPAA.

Carr, D and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2003. Existing State of Tourism in Alberta’s Flagship Provincial Parks. Alberta Provincial Parks Board of Management, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Wilkinson, Christopher J. A. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2003. Natural Heritage Planning in Ontario, Canada: the Interpretation of the Provincial Policy Statement by the Ontario Municipal Board. Ontario Planning 18(4): 27-29, 18(5):  18(6):19-20.

Fagan, Andrea J. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. Characteristics of the Older Camper. Pages 1075-1087 in Soren Bondrup-Nielsen, Neil W. P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2000. Canada: SAMPAA.

Gertsch, Frances, Roger Suffling and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. The Effect of Education on Compliance with Wilderness Campsite Closure. Pages 1027-1036 in Soren Bondrup-Nielsen, Neil W. P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2000. Canada: SAMPAA.

Hawthorn, Devon, Merri Kirik and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. Evaluating Management Effectiveness of Parks and Park Systems. Pages 414-430 in Soren Bondrup-Nielsen, Neil W. P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2000. Canada: SAMPAA.

Mulholland, Giles and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. African Parks: Combining Fiscal and Ecological Sustainability. PARKS 12(1): 42-49.

Nykiforuk, Candace I. J. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. Perceptions of ISO 9004 Quality Service Management Standards for Visitor Services: What Do Parks Canada Employees Really Think? Pages 1015-1026 in Soren Bondrup-Nielsen, Neil W. P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2000. Canada: SAMPAA.

Porter, James, Stephen Murphy and Paul Eagles. 2002. Improving the Role of Recreationists in the Conservation of Parks and Protected Areas: A Conceptual Discussion of Recreation-Sensitive Conservation. Pages 1005-1014 in Soren Bondrup-Nielsen, Neil W. P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2000. Canada: SAMPAA.

Wilkinson, Christopher J. A.& Paul F. J. Eagles. 2001. Strengthening the Conservation of Biodiversity: Reforming Ontario's Provincial Parks Act, Natural Areas Journal, 21(4), 329-336.

Hornback, Kenneth E. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 1999. Guidelines for Public Use Measurement and Reporting at Parks and Protected Areas. First Edition. IUCN, Parks Canada, Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism for Australia and World Commission on Protected Areas. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland.

Nykiforuk, Candace and Paul Eagles. 1999. Standards for Service Quality: Is There a Place for Them in the Parks Canada System? Pages 153-160 in Proceedings of Ontario Parks Research Conference, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1999. Nature-based Tourism in Terrestrial Protected Areas. Pages 144-152 in Sue Bolton and Nigel Dudley, Partnerships for Protection: New Strategies for Planning and Management for Protected Areas, Earthscan, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain, 283 pp. (Now available through Google Books)

Eagles, P. F. J. 1995. Tourism and Canadian Parks: fiscal relationships. Managing Leisure 1(1): 16-27.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1993. Protected Areas Legislation in Canada. Pages 57-74 in P. Dearden and R. Rollins, Parks and Protected Areas in Canada: Planning and Management, Oxford University Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 336 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1993. Environmental Management in Parks. Pages 154-184 in P. Dearden and R. Rollins, Parks and Protected Areas in Canada: Planning and Management, Oxford University Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 336 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1984. A Study of the Ontario Provincial Parks Act. Recreation Publication Series No. 1, Department of Recreation, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 39 pp.

Applied Ecology and Environmental Planning

Introduction: Science has its limitations in application, so it is often up to people other than scientists to apply the knowledge gained from science into human affairs. As a biologist and an ecologist, it has been a long-time professional interest to apply the theories and knowledge of ecology in planning and management situations. This I have been able to do in a wide variety of planning situations, ranging from park master plans, to municipal official plans, from the placement of electricity power line corridors to tourism planning. My research in applied ecology also reflects my passion for ornithology and protected areas.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Elke Meyfarth O'Hara, and Graham Whitelaw. 2012. Moving from Landscape Connectivity Theory to Land use Planning: Urban Planning in Oakville, Ontario. Pages 223-246, In: The Colorado Plateau V: Research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation.  (van Riper, C., III, M. L. Villarreal, C. J. van Riper, and M. J. Johnson, Eds). University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 343 pp.

Wang, Lioanyong and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2009. Some theoretical considerations: From landscape ecology to waterscape ecology. Acta Ecologica Sinica 29(3): 176–181.

Whitelaw, G.S., P.F.J. Eagles, R.B. Gibson and M.L. Seasons. 2008. Roles of environmental movement organizations in land use planning: case studies of the Niagara Escarpment and Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 51(1): 801-816.

Whitelaw, Graham and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2007. Planning for Linkages and Corridors on Private Land: The Oak Ridges Moraine Experience. Conservation Biology 21 (3): 675-683.

Wilkinson, Christopher J. A. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2003. Natural Heritage Planning in Ontario, Canada: the Interpretation of the Provincial Policy Statement by the Ontario Municipal Board. Ontario Planning 18(4): 27-29, 18(5): 20-21, 18(6):19-20.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Christopher J. A. Wilkinson. 2001. Analysis of Ontario Municipal Board Decisions: The Application of the Provincial Policy Statement, Section 2.3 Natural Heritage. Report prepared for the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario. 33 pp.         

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2005. Carolinian Canada: The Past and the Future. Proceedings of the Carolinian Canada 20th Anniversary Conference, Carolinian Canada, London, Ontario.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. Environmental Management. Pages 265-294 in P. Dearden and R. Rollins, Parks and Protected Areas in Canada: Planning and Management. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Toronto, Ontario.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Christopher Wilkinson. 2000. Ecosystem Fragmentation: Theory, Practice and Policy Options. Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 47 pp.

Friesen, Lyle. E., Paul F. J. Eagles and R. J. MacKay. 1995. Effects of Residential Development on Forest-Dwelling Neotropical Migrant Songbirds. Conservation Biology 9(6):1408-1414.

Allen, G. M., P. F. J. Eagles and S. D. Price (editors). 1990. Conserving Carolinian Canada. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 346 pp.

Cadman, M. D., P. F. J. Eagles and F. M. Helleiner (editors). 1987. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 616 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. and T. J. Beechey. 1985. Critical Unprotected Natural Areas in the Carolinian Life Zone of Canada. Carolinian Canada, World Wildlife Fund (Canada), Toronto. 400 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1981. Environmentally Sensitive Area Planning in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the American Planning Association 47(3): 313-323.

Brady, R., T. Tobias, P. Eagles, R. Ohrner, J. Micak, B. Veale, and R. S. Dorney. 1979. A Typology for the Urban Ecosystem and its Relationship to Larger Biogeographical Landscape Units. Urban Ecology 4: 11-28

Ecotourism

Introduction: People love to visit, experience and learn from the natural environment. It is this love that fuels government's interest in protecting many special sites, as parks and protected areas. Strangely though, environmental planners and managers often ignore or downplay the interests and needs of visitors. My personal interest in this field is to better understand ecotourists and park visitors. This interest does not end there, as it is essential to develop effective planning and management institutions to deal with this tourism. My career in ecotourism and park tourism deals with increasing the understanding of people and applying this understanding to management institutions. In recent years the position of Chair of the Tourism Task Force for the World Commission on Protected Areas has increased my involvement in international park tourism.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2012. Role of Ecotourism in Preserving Natural Areas and Biodiversity. Chapter 7 in K. S. Bricker, Rosemary Black and Stuart Cottrell, Eds, Sustainable Tourism & the Millennium Development Goals. Jones & Bartlett: Burlington, MA, USA

Rattan, Jasveen and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2010. Volunteer Tourism: Its’ Role in Creating Conservation Awareness. Journal of Ecotourism 10(1): 1-15.

Kwan, Pia, Paul F. J. Eagles and Amber Gebhardt. 2010. Ecolodge Patrons’ Characteristics and Motivations: A Study of Belize. Journal of Ecotourism 9(1): 62-63.

Kwan, Pia, Paul F. J. Eagles and Amber Gebhardt. 2008. A Comparison of Ecolodge Patrons Characteristics and Motivations Based on Price Levels: A Case Study of Belize. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16(6): 698-719.

Yin, Weinan Connie and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2005. Development and Ranking of Tourism Management Goals for Wolong and Wangland Giant Panda Reserves, China. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 1(3): 1-13.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2004. Trends Affecting Tourism in Protected Areas. Pages 17 to 25 in Sievänen, Tuija, Erkkonen, Joel, Jokimäki, Jukka, Saarinen, Jarkko, Tuulentie, Seija and Virtanen, Eija (eds.). Policies, methods and tools for visitor management – proceedings of the second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, June 16–20, 2004, Rovaniemi, Finland. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. 417 p. Available at:  http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2004/mwp002.htm.

Tao, Chang-Hung, Paul F. J. Eagles and Stephen L. J. Smith. 2004. Implications of Alternative Definitions of Ecotourists. Tourism Analysis (9): 1-13.

Tao, Chang-Hung, Paul F. J. Eagles and Stephen L. J. Smith. 2004. Profiling Taiwanese Ecotourists Using a Self-definition Approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 12(2): 149-168.

Barnes, Martha and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. A call to research: The Need to Examine the Link between Ecotourists and Philanthropic Behaviour. Tourism Recreation Research 29 (3): 35-38

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. What Price a Nature-based Industry? National Park International Bulletin 3: 15-19.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2001. Nature-based Tourism Management. Pages 181-232 in G.Wall, editor, Contemporary Perspectives on Tourism. Department of Geography Publication Series, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Mitchell, Ross E. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2001. Community Integration in Sustainable Tourism: The Case of Taquile Island and Chiquian, Peru. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(1): 4:28.

Wade, Derek J., B.C. Mwsaga & Paul F. J. Eagles. 2001. A History and Market Analysis of Tourism in Tanzania. Tourism Management 21(1): 93-101.

Weaver, David, Kenneth F. Backman, Erlet Cater, Paul F. J. Eagles & Bob McKercher. (Eds). 2001. The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom of Great Britain. A review of this book can be found at here.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1999. Nature-based Tourism in Terrestrial Protected Areas. Pages 144-152 in Sue Bolton and Nigel Dudley, Partnerships for Protection: New Strategies for Planning and Management for Protected Areas, Earthscan, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain, 283 pp.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Bryan R. Higgins. 1998. Ecotourism Market and Industry Structure. Pages 11-43 in Kreg Lindberg, Megan Epler Wood and David Engeldrum (eds.), Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers, 2nd ed. The Ecotourism Society, North Bennington, Vermont, United States of America.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1998. Ecotourism and Parks: Do or Die. Pages 261-278 in John S. Marsh and Bruce W. Hodgins, Editors, Changing Parks: The History, Future and Cultural Context of Parks and Heritage Landscapes, Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 311 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. and J. W. Cascagnette. 1995. Canadian Ecotourists: Who Are They? Tourism Recreation Research 20(1):22-28.

Eagles, P. F. J. and E. Wind. 1994. Canadian Ecotours in 1992: A Content Analysis of Advertising. Journal of Applied Recreation Research 19(1):67-87.

Ballantine, J. L. and P. F. J. Eagles. 1994. Defining Canadian Ecotourists. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2(4):1-5.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1992. The Travel Motivations of Canadian Ecotourists. Journal of Travel Research, XXXI(2):3-7.

Park Tourism

Lemieux, Christopher J., Paul F.J. Eagles, D. Scott Slocombe, Sean T. Doherty, Susan J. Elliott, and Steven E. Mock. 2012. The Human Health and Well-being Benefits of Canada’s Protected Areas: an Exploratory Analysis of Visitor Perceptions. PARKS 18(1): 71-85.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Will van Hemessen, and Maria Legault. 2012. Advanced booking behaviour of park visitors: Ontario Provincial Parks. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management (In press).

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2010. Managing Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas. In A. Livina, Solutions on Harmonizing Sustainability and Nature Protection with Socio-Economic Stability. Proceedings of the 3rd International Scientific Conference, Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, 1-20 August, Valmiera, Latvia.

Maple, Laura C., Paul F. J. Eagles, and Heather Rolfe. 2010. Birdwatchers’ specialization characteristics and national park tourism planning. Journal of Ecotourism 9(3): 219-238.

Malone Given Parsons Ltd., Lynn Morrow Consulting, Paul F. J. Eagles Planning Ltd., and Western Management Consultants. 2010. Dry Island Buffalo Jump Provincial Park and Area Tourism Development Plan. Canadian Badlands Ltd and Alberta Tourism, Parks, and Recreation, Alberta, Canada. 330 pp. Executive Summary here.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Grace Bandoh. 2009. Visitor and Tourism Management in Algonquin Park: The Past, Present and Future. Chapter 4 in D. Euler & M. Wilton (eds), Algonquin Park: The Human Impact. Algonquin Ecowatch: Spring Bay, Ontario.

Eagles, Paul F.J. and Oliver Hillel. 2008. Improving protected area finance through tourism. Paper presented to the Second meeting of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Protected Areas (WGPA-2), Rome, Italy, February 11 – 15 2008, in preparation for the Ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP-9) – Bonn, Germany, May 19 to 30, 2008.

Rae, Kimberley and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2007. Management of a River Recreation Resource: the Lower Kananaskis River – a Case Study. Pages 224-231 in Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Northeastern Research Station, U. S. Forest Service, General Technical Report.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Robyn Bushell. 2007. Tourism and Protected Areas: Benefits Beyond Boundaries. England: CABI. This book can be found on the CABI web site at: http://www.cabi.org/bk_BookDisplay.asp?SubjectArea=Lei&Subject=Tourism&PID=1865

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Derek Wade. 2006. Tourism in Tanzania: Serengeti National Park. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 290 (4): 73-80

Zealand, C.T.W., P. Zou, P.F.J. Eagles, L.M. Bickis and A.J. Aspinall. 2005. Developing Tourism Goals and Objectives for the Parks Canada Agency. Pages 2-6 in Proceeding of the 2005 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Northeastern Research Station, U. S. Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-341.

Robinson, Jessica, Yu-Fai Leung and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2005. Making Your Visitors Count: Collecting and Archiving Visitation Data in U.S. Protected Areas. George Society Annual Conference, Philadelphia, USA.

Baldin, Eric, Peter Deadman and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2004. Visitor Statistics for Conservation Authorities in Ontario: Current Status and Methods. In Neil W. P. Munro, Phil Dearden, Tom B. Herman, Karen Beazley and Soren Bondrup-Neilsen, Making Ecosystem Based Management Work, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 11 - 16 May 2003. Canada: SAMPAA.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2004. Goals of Public Use Measurement and Reporting in Parks and Protected Areas. Nordic and Baltic Workshop on Visitor Information Needs and Monitoring Methods, June 14-15, Rovaniemi, Finland.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2004. Trends Affecting Tourism in Protected Areas. Pages 17 to 25 in Tuija Sievänen, Joel Erkkonen, Jukka Jokimäki, Jarkko Saarinen, SeijaTuulentie, and EijaVirtanen. (eds.). Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management – Proceedings of the second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, June 16–20, 2004, Rovaniemi, Finland. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2004/mwp002.htm.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2004. Tourism at the Fifth World Parks Congress, Durban, South Africa, 8-17 September 2003. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 12(2):169-173.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Elizabeth Halpenny and Ron McCarville. 2004. Best Practice Study for Sustainable Tourism at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Paul F. J. Eagles Planning Ltd., Branchton, Ontario.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Dawn Carr. 2003. Existing State of Tourism Management in Alberta’s Flagship Provincial Parks. Paul F. J. Eagles Planning Ltd., Branchton, Ontario. 48 pp.

Wade, Derek J. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2003. The Use of Importance-Performance Analysis and Market Segmentation for Tourism Management in Parks and Protected Areas: An Application to Tanzania’s National Parks. Journal of Ecotourism 2(3): 196-212.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2003. International Trends in Park Tourism: The Emerging Role of Finance. The George Wright Forum 20(1): 25-57.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. Trends in Park Tourism: Economics, Finance and Management. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 10(2): 132-153.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. Tourism-use Measurement and Reporting in Parks and Protected Areas. PARKS 12(1): 3-10.

Mulholland, Giles and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. African Parks: Combining Fiscal and Ecological Sustainability. PARKS 12(1): 42-49.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. Tendances Internationales du Tourisme dans Les Parcs. Pages 198-213 in Herman Stotter and Christina Wurzacher (eds), Proceedings of the EUROPARC Federation 2001 General Assembly and Conference, National Park Hohe Tauern, Matrei in Osttirol, Austria. (Also published in English and German).

Eagles, Paul F. J., Stephen McCool and Christopher Haynes. 2002. Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management. United Nations Environment Programme, World Tourism Organization and World Conservation Union. 183 pp.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Stephen F. McCool. 2002. Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning and Management. England: CABI.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2002. International Trends in Park Tourism and Ecotourism. Pages 902-919 in Soren Bondrup- Nielsen, Neil W.P. Munro, Gordon Nelson, J. H. Martin Willison, Tom B. Herman and Paul Eagles. Managing Protected Areas in a Changing World. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Management of Protected Areas, 14 - 19 May 2002. Canada: SAMPAA.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2001. The Evolution of the Concept of Visitor Use Management in Parks. UNEP Industry and Environment 24(3-4):65-67.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 2001. International Trends in Park Tourism. National Park International Bulletin 2: 16-19.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Margaret E. & Teresa Chang-Hung Tao. 2001. Guidelines for Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas of East Asia. World Conservation Union, World Commission on Protected Areas - East Asia Region, Gland, Switzerland. 99pp. (This document can also be found at: http://www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca/~eagles/EastAsia.pdf)

Wade, Derek J., B. C. Mwsaga and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2001. A History and Market Analysis of Tourism in Tanzania. Tourism Management 22(1):93-101.

Eagles, Paul F. J., Daniel McLean and Mike J. Stabler. 2000. Estimating the Tourism Volume and Value in Parks and Protected Areas in Canada and the USA. George Wright Forum 17(3): 62-76.

Van Sickle, Kerry and Paul F. J. Eagles. 1998. User Fees and Pricing Policies in Canadian Senior Park Agencies. Tourism Management 19(3): 225-235.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1998. International Trends in Park Finance and Tourism: Implications for Ontario. Pages 30-48 in J. G. Nelson, K. Van Osch, T. J. Beechey, W. R. Stephenson and J. Marsh, Parks and Protected Areas Research in Ontario. Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 410 pp.

Eagles, Paul F. J. and Jennifer Martens. 1997. Wilderness Tourism and Forestry: The Possible Dream in Algonquin Provincial Park. Journal of Applied Recreation Research 22(1):79-97.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1996. Issues in Tourism Management in Parks: The Experience in Australia. Australian Leisure 7(2): 29-37

Eagles, P. F. J. 1995. Tourism and Canadian Parks: Fiscal Relationships. Managing Leisure 1(1):16-27.

Outdoor Recreation

Introduction: Canada's out-of-doors is a primary element in the definition of the Canadian identity. Canada's forests, lakes, prairies and mountains are extolled in film, music and art. Small wonder, that Canadians spend much of their leisure time searching for personal fulfillment in Canadian nature. It is therefore critical that the planning and management of outdoor recreation be undertaken with the best knowledge available. These publications provide some theoretical background to this type of management.

Jenkins, John M., John J. Pigram, Richard Butler, Paul F. J. Eagles, Karla Henderson, Ian Henry, Norm McIntyre, Chris Ryan, George Stankey, John Tribe and A. J. Veal (editors). 2003. Encyclopedia of Leisure and Outdoor Recreation. Routledge: New York, New York, USA.

Robson, Mark and Paul F. J. Eagles. 2002. Hiking Opportunity Spectrum: Landscape and Facility Preferences of Wilderness Hikers in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Tourism 5(1): 67-75.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1995. Understanding the Market for Sustainable Tourism. Pages 25-33 in Stephen F. McCool and Alan E. Watson, compilers, Linking Tourism, the Environment and Sustainability. Proceedings of a special session of the annual meeting of the National Recreation and Park Association; 1994 October 12-14; Minneapolis, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-323. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 95 pp. Republished at The International Ecotourism Society

Eagles, P. F. J., R. S. Sherback and L. N. Ordubegian. 1990. A Study of the Expenditures of Snowmobilers: An Ontario Provincial Survey. Occasional Paper No. 7, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 55 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J., R. S. Sherback and L. N. Ordubegian. 1990. A Study of the Expenditures of Snowmobilers: A Site Survey of the Grey County, Muskoka, and Sudbury Snowmobile Areas. Occasional Paper No. 15, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 73 pp.

Environmental Assessment and Resource Management

Introduction: It is important that all major societal decisions involve a solid understanding of their environmental impact. As an environmental planner, I have been involved in a wide variety of environmental assessments, including the application of this knowledge into societal decisions.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1999. Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation and Development Area Project. Mission Report to the World Bank on South Africa and Lesotho Tourism. 11 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1995. Review of the Proposed Bachelor of Environmental Planning. Faculty of Environmental Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. 10 pp.

Nielson, D., R. Diebolt and P. F. J. Eagles. 1986. A Biological Inventory of the Six Nations Indian Reserve. Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. 267 pp.

Eagles, P. F. J. 1984. The Planning and Management of Environmentally Sensitive Areas. Longman, London and New York. 159 pp.

Outdoor and Environmental Education

Introduction: From 1970 through 1974 I was involved in teaching park visitors about nature. This early experience provided me with valuable insight into human behaviour, as well as a recognition that decision making is fundamentally dependent upon the attitudes and knowledge of the decision-makers. In the 1980s and 1990s my contact with many keen environmental education co-op students rekindled this interest, and moved me into a considerable amount of student thesis research in the field. The following publications outline my rather modest contribution to this field. Much of this work has been with very talented students who brought their own knowledge and enthusiasm to the work.

Eagles, P. F. J. and Robert Demare. 1999. Factors Influencing Children's Environmental Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Education 31 (4): 33-37.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1999. Ecotourism and Environmental Education: Relationships. Pathways 12(2): 15-17.

Baird, Katherine M. and Paul F. J. Eagles. 1998. Using Student Opinion to Evaluate the Fulfillment of the Durham Forest Outdoor and Environmental Education Centre Program Goals. Pathways 10(1):5-12.

Eagles, Paul F. J. 1997. Environmental and Outdoor Education At Ontario Universities: 1970 to 1995. The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education 9(3):12-13.

Eagles, Paul, Alisha Townsend, Scott Blythe, and Heather Gilman. 1997. Student Evaluation of the Waterloo County Board of Education Outdoor and Environmental Education Programme. The Ontario Journal of Outdoor Education 9(3):30-33.

Eagles, P. F. J. and M. Richardson. 1992. The Status of Environmental Education at Field Centers of Ontario Schools. The Journal of Environmental Education 23(4):9-14.

Eagles, P. F. J. and S. Muffit. 1990. An Analysis of Children's Attitudes Towards Animals. Journal of Environmental Education 21(3):41-44.


Last update: 18 June 2015

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