Kinesiology Home Page

Research: Stuart McGill

Department of Kinesiology
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada

Books   lowback book cover Ultimate Back Book Cover   DVDs DVD cover DVD photo

Summary of Publications

Books = 3        
Chapters in books = 25
Full refereed journal papers = >170
Refereed conference papers = >140
Keynote addresses = > 50
Other invited addresses = 330 plus
Self initiated addresses = 150 plus


  1. Augaitis, R. Kell, R. Kourtis, G. McGill, S. Whitmarsh, L. Springle, N. Personal Fitness: Faster, Stronger, Smarter. Textbook for High School Curriculum Thompson Books, Toronto, 2011
  2. McGill, S.M.  Ultimate back fitness and performance, Backfitpro Inc., Waterloo, Canada, 2004. ISBN 0-9736018-0-4 (  Fourth edition 2009.
  3. McGill, S.M.  Low back disorders: Evidence based prevention and rehabilitation, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, U.S.A., 2002. ISBN 0-7360-4241-5, Second Edition, 2007.
                Now also printed in Japanese, 2003
                Now also printed in Chinese, 2009.

The research listed in the publications below has been synthesized and unified in the books.

Clinical DVD

  1. McGill, S.M., The Ultimate Back: Enhancing Performance (, 2010
  2. McGill, S.M., Clinical Techniques for the Ultimate Back:  Assessment and Therapeutic Exercise (, 2007.

Commissioned and Position Papers

  1. McGill, S.M.  There is no such thing as non-specific back pain.  A position paper written   for the Centre of Research Excellence:  Musculoskeletal Disorders.  Faculty of Applied            Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 2009.
  2. McGill, S.M. On the link between occupationally related musculoskeletal loading and low back injury.  Commissioned paper for the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, USA, March, 2000.

Publications in Refereed Journals

*Indicates first authors who were students at time of development of the paper.


  1. McGill, S.M., Andersen, J., Horne, A. Predicting performance and injury resilience from movement quality and fitness scores in a basketball player population. J.Strength.Condit.Res.
  2. Balkovec, C., McGill, S.M. (Accepted May 2012) Extent of nucleus pulposus migration in the annulus of intervertebral discs exposed to cyclic flexion only versus cyclic flexion and extension. Clin.Biomech.
  3. Moreside*, J.M., McGill, S.M. (Accepted March 2012) How do elliptical machines differ from walking: a study of torso motion and muscle activity. Clin. Biomech.
  4. Cambridge, E., Sidorkewicz, N., Ikeda, D., McGill, S.M.  (Accepted March 2012) Progressive hip rehabilitation: The effects of resistance band placement on gluteal activation during two common exercises. Clin.Biomech.
  5. Frost*, D., Fenwick, S., Callaghan, J., McGill, S.M.  (Accepted February 2012) Is there a low back cost to hip centric exercise?  Examining the L4/L5 joint compression and shear forces during movements used to overload the hips. J. Sport Sci.
  6. Moreside, J.M., McGill, S.M. (Accepted February 2012) Hip joint ROM improvements using 3 different interventions. J.Strength.Condit.Res.
  7. McGill, S.M., Frost, D., Crosby, I.  (Accepted January 2012) Movement quality and links to measures of fitness in firefighters. WORK
  8. Dejanovic, A., Harvey, E., McGill, S.M. Changes in torso muscle endurance profiles in children aged 7-14: Reference values.  Arch. Phys.Med.Rehab. (Accepted January 2012)
  9. McGill, S.M., Marshall, L.  Kettlebell swing snatch and bottoms-up carry: Back and hip muscle activation, motion, and low back loads. J. Strength Conditioning Res.
  10. Frost*, D.M., Beach, T.A.C., Callaghan, J.P., McGill, S.M. Using a movement screen to evaluate the effectiveness of training. J. Strength and Conditioning Res.
  11. Frost*, D. Andersen, J. Lam, T, Findlay, T., Darby, K., McGill, S.M. The relationship between general measures of fitness, passive range of motion and whole body movement quality. Ergonomics.
  12. Yates*, J.P. and McGill, S.M., (2011)  The effect of vibration and posture on the progression of intervertebral disc herniation. SPINE. 36(5) 386-392.
  13. Vera Garcia, F.J., Moreside, J.M., McGill, S.M. (2011) Abdominal muscle activation changes if the purpose is to control pelvis motion or thorax motion. J EMG & Kinesiology. 21:893-903.
  14. Moreside*, J. and McGill, S.M., (2011) Quantifying normal 3D hip range of motion in healthy adult males with clinical and laboratory tools: Hip mobility restrictions appear to be plane specific. Clin. Biomech. 26:824-829.
  15. McGill, S.M., (2011) Is a postural-structural-biomechanical model, within manual therapies, viable: AJBMT debate. Invited Response J. Bodywork and Movement Therapy 15(2):150-152.
  16. McGill, S.M.,(2010) <Invited Review> Core training: Evidence translating to better performance and injury prevention. Strength and Conditioning Journal 32(3):33-46.
  17. Brown*, S.H.M. and McGill, S.M. (2010) The relationship between trunk muscle activation and trunk stiffness:  Examining a non-constant stiffness gain.  Computer Methods Biomech Biomed Enging. 13(6): 829-835.
  18. McGill, S.M., (2010) <Invited Review> Quick Tip: Wearing a weight belt, Journal of the National Strength and Conditioning  Association. 
  19. McGill, S.M., Chaimberg, J., Frost, D., Fenwick, C. (2010) The double peak:  How elite MMA fighters develop speed and strike force.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 24(2): 348-357.
  20. Depalma, M., McGill, S.M. (2010) Does sustained hip flexion and pelvic rock predict the etiology of low back pain? Phys. Med. and Rehab.
  21. Brown*, S.H.M. and McGill, S.M.  (2010) A comparison of ultrasound and electromyography measures of force and activation to examine the mechanics of abdominal wall contraction. Clin.Biomech. 25:115-123.
  22. Yates*, J.P., Giangregorio, L. and McGill, S.M.  (2010) The influence of intervertebral disc shape on the pathway of posterior/posterior lateral partial herniation.  SPINE. 35 (7):734-739.
  23. McGill, S.M., Belore, M., Crosby, I., Russell, C. (2010) Comparison of two methods to quantify torso flexion endurance.  Occup. Ergonmics. 9:55-61
  24. McGill, S.M., Rehabiliation of the painful back: IDEA Fitness Journal, January 2010.
  25. Marshall, L., McGill, S.M.  (2010) The role of axial torque/twist in disc herniation.  Clin.Biomech. 25(1): 6-9.
  26. Brown*, S., McGill, S.M. (2009)  The intrinsic stiffness of the invivo lumbar spine in response to a variety of quick releases:  Implications for reflexive requirements, J. EMG Kinesiol. 19(5):727-736
  27. Fenwick, C.M.J., Brown, S.H.M., McGill, S.M. (2009) Comparison of different rowing exercises:  Trunk muscle activation, and lumbar spine motion, load and stiffness.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(5):1408-1417.
  28. McGill, S.M., Karpowicz, A., Fenwick, C. (2009) Ballistic abdominal exercises:  Muscle activation patterns during a punch, baseball throw, and a torso stiffening manoeuvre.  J. Strength and Cond. Res. 23(3): 898-905.
  29. McGill, S.M., Karpowicz, A., Fenwick, C.  (2009) Exercises for the torso performed in a standing posture:  Motion and motor patterns.  J. Strength and Conditioning Res. 23(2): 455-464.
  30. McGill, S.M., There is no such thing as non-specific back pain.  A position paper written for the Centre of Research Excellence:  Musculoskeletal Disorders.
  31. Liebenson, C., Karpowicz, A., Brown, S., Howarth, S., McGill, S.M. (2009) The active straight leg raise test and lumbar spine stability.  Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  1 (6): 530-535.
  32. McGill, S.M. and Fenwick, C.M.J. (2009) Using a pneumatic support to correct sitting posture in airline seats.  Ergonomics. 52(9):1162-1168.
  33. Vera Garcia, F., Moreside, J., McGill, S.M. (2009) MVC techniques to normalize trunk muscle EMG in healthy women.  J. Electro. Kines.  20:10-16
  34. Sanchez-Zuriaga, D., Vera-Garcia, F.J., Moreside, J., McGill, S.M. (2009) Trunk muscle activation patterns and spine kinematics when using the body blade:  Influence of different postures and blade orientations.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab.  90 (6): 1055-1060.
  35. Banerjee*, P., Brown S., Howarth, S., McGill, S.M. (2009) Torso and hip muscle activity and resulting spine load and stability while using the Profitter 3-D Cross Trainer.  J. Appl. Biomech., 25: 73-84.
  36. McGill, S.M. (2009) <Invited Paper> Evolving Ergonomics? Ergonomics, 52(1): 80-86.
  37. McGill, S.M., Karpowicz, A. (2009) Exercises for spine stabilization:  Motion/Motor patterns, stability progressions and clinical technique.  Arch. Phys. Med. and Rehab.,  90: 118-126.
  38. Scannell*, J.P., McGill, S.M. (2009) Disc prolapse:  Evidence of reversal with repeated extension.  SPINE, 34(4): 344-350.
  39. Brown*, S., McGill, S.M. (2009) Transmission of muscularly generated force and stiffness between layers of the rat abdominal wall.  SPINE, 34(2): E70-E75.
  40. Brown*,S., McGill, S.M.  (2008) An ultrasound investigation into the morphology of the human abdominal wall uncovers complex deformation patterns during contraction.  Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6): 1021-1030.
  41. McGill, S.M., McDermott, A., Fenwick, C. (2008) Comparison of different strongman events:  Trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine motion, load and stiffness, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 23(4): 1148-1161
  42. Grenier*, S.G., McGill, S.M. (2008)  When exposed to challenged ventilation, those with a history of LBP increase spine stability relatively more than healthy individuals.  Clin. Biomech. 23(9): 1105-1111.
  43. McGill, S.M.  (2008) <Invited Review> On the use of weightbelts.  NSCA Hot Topics Series, ((Hot Topics).
  44. McGill, S.M.  (2008) <Invited Review> Therapeutic exercise for the painful lumbar spine: Where does one begin, Orthop. Div.Review CPA, pp. 12-18, March/April 2008.
  45. Brown*, S., McGill, S.M. (2008) How the inherent stiffness of the in-vivo human trunk varies with changing magnitude of muscular activation.  Clin. Biomech., 23(1): 15-22.
  46. Bereznick*, D., Pecora, C., Ross, K. and McGill, S.M. (2008) The refractory period of the audible “crack” following lumbar manipulation.  J. Manip. Physiol. Therapeutics., 31(3): 199-203.
  47. Wang*, S., McGill, S.M. (2008)  Links between the mechanics of ventilation and spine stability.  J. App. Biomech., 24(2): 166-174.
  48. Brown*, S., McGill, S.M. (2008)  Co-activation alters the linear versus non-linear impression of the EMG-Torque relationship of trunk muscles. J. Biomech., 41: 491-497.
  49. Brown*, S., Gregory, D., McGill, S.M. (2008) Vertebral and plate fractures as a result as a result of high rate pressure loading in the nucleus of the young porcine spine.  J. Biomech., 41(1): 122.-127.
  50. Moreside*, J.M., Vera-Garcia, F., McGill, S.M. (2008) Neuromuscular independence of abdominal wall muscles as demonstrated by middle-eastern style dancers.  J. Electromyography and Kines., 18: 527-537.
  51. Tampier*, C., Drake, J., Callaghan, J., McGill, S.M. (2007) Progressive disc herniation:  An investigation of the mechanism using radiologic, histochemical and microscopic dissection techniques.  SPINE, 32(25): 2869-2874.
  52. McGill, S.M. (2007) <Invited Review> The painful lumbar spine:  Thoughts for Kinesiologists. Can. Kin. J., 1(2): 5-13.
  53. McGill, S.M. (2007) <Invited Review>  The painful low back:  Mechanical causes can often be identified when specifically tested for.  Parkhurst Exchange 15(8): 62-66.
  54. Vera-Garcia, F., Moreside, J., Flores-Parodi, B., McGill, S.M. (2007) Trunk muscular activity during situations requiring stabilization of the spine:  A case study (in Spanish) Apunts. Educacion Fisica y Desportes, 87(1):14-26.
  55. Santana, J.C., Vera-Garcia, F.J., McGill, S.M., (2007)  A kinetic and electromyographic comparison of standing cable press and bench press.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(4): 1271-1279.
  56. Grenier*, S.G., and McGill, S.M. (2007) Quantification of lumbar stability using two different abdominal activation strategies.  Arch. Phys. Med. & Rehab., 88(1):54-62.
  57. Moreside*, J.M., Vera-Garcia, F.J., McGill, S.M. (2007) Trunk muscle activation patterns, lumbar compressive forces and spine stability when using the body blade.  Physical Therapy, 87(2):153-163.
  58. Vera-Garcia, F., Elvira, J.L.L., Brown, S.H.M., McGill, S.M. (2007) Effects of abdominal stabilization manoeuvres on the control of spine motion and stability against sudden trunk loading perturbations.  J. EMG and Kines., 17:556-567.
  59. Brown*, S.H.M., Vera-Garcia, F.J., McGill, S.M. (2007)  Effects of abdominal bracing on the externally pre-loaded trunk:  Implications for spine stability.  SPINE, 31:E387-398.
  60. McGill, S.M. <Invited Feature Article> The painful and unstable lumbar spine:  A foundation and approach for restablization.  Orthopaedic Division Reviews, March/April.  Canadian Physiotherapy Association, pp. 56-59, 2006.
  61. Lett*, K. and McGill, S.M. (2006) Pushing and pulling:  Personal mechanics influence spine loads, Ergonomics, 49(9): 895-908.
  62. Brown*, S.H.M., Vera-Garcia, F.J., McGill, S.M. (2006) Effects of abdominal muscle coactivation on the externally pre-loaded trunk:  Variations in Motor Control and its effects on spine stability.  SPINE, 31(13): E387-393.
  63. Vera-Garcia, F.J., Brown, S.H.M., Gray, J.R., and McGill, S.M. (2006)   Effects of different levels of torso coactivation on trunk muscular and kinematic responses to posteriorly applied sudden loads.  Clinical Biomechanics, 21(5): 443-455.
  64. Freeman*, S., Karpowicz, A., Gray, J., and McGill, S.M.  (2006)  Quantifying muscle patterns and spine load during various forms of the pushup.  Med. Sci:  Sports and Exerc., 38(3): 570-577.
  65. McGill, S.M., Kavcic, N., and Harvey, E.  (2006) Sitting on a chair or an exercise ball:  Various perspectives to guide decision making.  Clin. Biomech., 21(4): 353-360.
  66. Kavcic*, N., Lehman, G., and McGill, S.M.  (2005) Effect of Modulated TENS on muscle oxygenation, muscle spasm and pain: Searching for a physiological mechanism. J.M.S. Pain, 13(2): 19-30.
  67. Preuss*, R., Grenier, S., and McGill, S.M.  (2005) Postural control of the lumbar spine in unstable sitting. Arch. Phys. Medicine, 86: 2309-2315.
  68. Brown*, S.H. and McGill, S.M. (2005) Muscle force-stiffness characteristics influence joint stability.  Clin. Biomech., 20(9): 917-922.
  69. Drake*, J.D., Aultman, C.D., McGill, S.M., and Callaghan, J.P. (2005) The influence of  static axial torque in combined loading on intervertebral joint failure mechanics using a porcine model, Clin. Biomech., 20(10): 1038-1045.
  70. Hicks, G.E., Fritz, J.M., Delitto, A., and McGill, S.M. (2005)  Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program.  Arch. Phys. Med. and Rehab., 86(9): 1753-1762.
  71. McGill, S.M., and Kavcic, N. (2005) Transfer of the horizontal patient:  The effect of a
    friction reducing assistive on low back mechanics, Ergonomics, 48(8): 915-929.
  72. Aultman*, C.D., Scannell, J., and McGill, S.M. (2005) Predicting the direction of nucleus tracking in porcine spine motion segments subjected to repetitive flexion and simultaneous lateral bend, Clinical Biomechanics, 20: 126-129.
  73. McGill, S.M., and Brown, S.  (2004) Psychosocial variables in those with a previous history of LBP with work loss and those without – 16 month follow-up. Ergonomics, 48(2): 200-206.
  74. Howarth*, S.J., Allison, A.E., Grenier, S., Cholewicki, J., and McGill, S.M. (2004) On the implications of interpreting the stability index:  A spine example.  J. Biomech., 37(8):1147-1154.
  75. Kavcic*, N., Grenier, S.G., and McGill, S.M. (2004) Quantifying tissue loads and spine stability while performing commonly prescribed low back stabilization exercises.  Spine., 29(20): 2319-2329.
  76. Aultman*, C.D., Drake, J., Callaghan, J.P., and McGill, S.M.  (2004) The effect of static torsion on the compression strength of the spine:  An invitro analysis using a porcine spine model.  Spine, 29(15): E304-309.
  77. Ross*, J.K., Bereznick, D.E., and McGill, S.M.  (2004) Determining cavitation location during lumbar and thoracic spinal manipulation:  Is spinal manipulation accurate and specific?  Spine, 29(13): 1452-1457.
  78. McGill, S.M.  (2004) Linking latest knowledge of injury mechanisms and spine function to the prevention of low back disorders.  J. Electromyography and Kines., 14(1):43-47.
  79. Kavcic*, N., Grenier, S., and McGill, S.M.  (2004) Determining the stabilizing role of individual torso muscles during rehabilitation exercises.  Spine, 29(11):1254-1265.
  80. Scannell*, J.P., and McGill, S.M. (2003)  Lumbar posture – should, and can, it be modified?  A study of passive tissue stiffness and lumbar position in activities of daily living. Phys. Ther., 83(10): 907-917.
    *Also published in “Hooked on Evidence”, American Physical Therapy Association Website, 2003.
  81. McGill, S.M., Grenier, S., Kavcic, N., Cholewicki, J. (2003)  Coordination of muscle activity to assure stability of the lumbar spine.  Journal of Electromyography and Kines. 13:353-359.
  82. McGill, S.M., Grenier, S., Bluhm, M., Preuss, R., Brown, S., and Russell, C.  (2003)  Previous history of LBP with work loss is related to lingering effects in biomechanical physiological, personal, and psychosocial characteristics.  Ergonomics, 46(7): 731-746.
  83. Preuss*, G., Grenier, S., and McGill, S.M. (2003) The effect of test position on lumbar spine position sense. JOSPT. 33(2):73-78.
  84. Parks*, K.A., Crichton, K.S. Goldford, R.J. and McGill, S.M. (2003) On the validity of ratings of impairment for low back disorders. SPINE. 28(4):380-384.
  85. Grenier*, S.G., Preuss, R.A., Russell, C., and McGill, S.M. (2003) On the validity of the sit and reach test for lumbar flexibility and previous history of low back disability.  Can. J. Appl. Physiol., 28(2): 165-177.
  86. Green*, J., Grenier, S., and McGill, S.M.  (2002) Low back stiffness is altered with warmup and bench rest: Implications for athletes.  Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34(7): 1076-1081.  Also selected and published in:  Year Book of Sports Medicine, (M. Alexander editor), Mosby-Year Book Inc., St. Louis 2003.
  87. Bereznick*, D.E., Ross, J.K., and McGill, S.M. (2002) The frictional properties at the thoracic skin-fascia interface: Implications in Spine Manipulation.  Clin. Biomech. 17(4): 297-303.
  88. Lehman*, G., Vernon, H., and McGill, S.M.  (2001) Effects of a mechanical pain stimulus on erector spinae activity before and after a spinal manipulation in patients with back pain: A preliminary investigation.  J.M.P.T. 24(6): 402-406.
  89. Lehman*, G., and McGill, S.M. (2001) Quantification of the differences in electromyographic activity magnitude between upper and lower rectus abdominis during selected trunk exercises.  Phys. Ther. 81: 1096-1101.
  90. Callaghan*, J.P., and McGill, S.M.  (2001) Low back joint loading and kinematics during standing and unsupported sitting.  Ergonomics 44(3): 280-294.
  91. Lehman, G., and McGill, S.M.  (2001) Spinal manipulation causes variable spine kinematic and trunk muscle electromyographic responses.  Clin. Biomech. 16(4): 293-299.
  92. Au*, G., Cook, J., and McGill, S.M.  (2001) Spinal shrinkage during repetitive torsional, lateral bending, and flexion/extension exertions.  ERGONOMICS  44(4): 373-381.
  93. Gunning*, J.L., Callaghan, J.P. and McGill, S.M.  (2001) The role of prior loading history and spinal posture on the compressive tolerance and type of failure in the spine using a porcine trauma model.  Clin. Biomech. 16(6): 471-480.
  94. Callaghan*, J.P., and McGill, S.M. (2001) Intervertebral disc herniation: Studies on a porcine model exposed to highly repetitive flexion/extension motion with compressive force.  Clin. Biom. 16(1): 28-37.
  95. McGill, S.M., and Cholewicki, J. (2001) Biomechanical basis for stability: An explanation to enhance clinical ability.  J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 31(2): 96-100.
  96. McGill, S.M. < Invited Review > (2001) Low Back Stability: From  formal description to issues for performance and rehabilitation, Exercise and Sports Science Reviews, 29(1): 26-31.
  97. Vera-Garcia, F.J., Grenier, S.G., and McGill, S.M.  (2000) Abdominal response during curl-ups on both stable and labile surfaces.  Phys. Ther. 80(6): 564-569.
  98. McGill, S.M., Hughson, R.L., and Parks, K. (2000) Changes in lumbar lordosis modify the role of the extensor muscles.  Clin. Biomech. 15(1): 777-780
  99. Ross*, J.K., Bereznick, D.E., and McGill, S.M. < Invited short version > (2000) Atlas - Axis Facet Asymmetry: Implication in manual palpation.  Rheumatology Reviews issue 3100: 16-17, originally published in full in Spine 1999.
  100. Stothart, P., and McGill, S.M.  (2000) Stadiometry: on measurement technique to reduce variability in spine shrinkage measurement.  Clin. Biomech 15: 546-548.
  101. McGill, S.M., Hughson, R., and Parks, K. (2000)  Lumbar erector spinae oxygenation during prolonged contractions: Implications for prolonged work.  ERGONOMICS 43: 486-493.
  102. Brereton*, L., and  McGill, S.M.  (1999) Effects of physical fatigue and cognitive challenges on the potential for low back injury.  Human Movement Science 18: 839-857.
  103. Lehman*, G., and McGill, S.M. ( 1999)  Influence of chiropractic manipulation on lumbar kinematics and EMG during simple and complex tasks: A case study.  J. Manip. Physiol. Therapeutics 22(9): 576-581.
  104. Cholewicki, J., Juluru, K., Radebold, A., Panjabi, M.M., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Lumbar spine stability can be augmented with an abdominal belt and/or increased intra-abdominal pressure.  Eur. Spine J. 8: 388-395.
  105. McGill, S.M. <Invited Report> (1999) Stability: from biomechanical concept to chiropractic practice.  J. Can. Chiropr. Assn. 43(2): 79-92.
  106. Hicks*, A., McGill, S., and Hughson, R.L. (1999) Tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy and muscle blood flow during isometric contractions of the forearm. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 24(3): 216-230.
  107. Yingling*, V.R., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Mechanical properties and failure mechanics of the spine under posterior shear load: observations from a porcine model.  J. Spinal Disorders 12(6): 501-508.
  108. Lehman*, G., and McGill, S.M. (1999) The importance of normalization in the interpretation of surface electromyography: A proof of principle.  J. Manip. Physiol. Therapeutics 22(7): 444-446.
  109. Yingling*, V.R., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Anterior shear of spinal motion segments: kinematics, kinetics and resulting injuries observed in a porcine model.  SPINE 24(18): 1882-1889.
  110. Cholewicki, J., Juluru, K., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) The intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine.  J. Biomech. 32(1): 13-17.
  111. McGill, S.M., Yingling, V.R., and Peach, J.P. (1999) Three dimensional kinematics and trunk muscle myoelectric activity in the elderly spine: A database compared to young people.  Clin. Biomech. 14(6): 389-395.
  112. McGill, S.M., Childs, A., and  Liebenson, C. (1999)  Endurance times for stabilization exercises: Clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 80: 941-944.
  113. Ross*, J.K., Bereznik*, D., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Atlas-axis facet asymmetry: Implications for manual palpation.  SPINE 24(12): 1203-1209.
  114. Yingling*, V.R., Callaghan, J.P., and McGill, S.M. (1999) The porcine cervical spine as a reasonable model of the human lumbar spine:  An anatomical, geometrical and functional comparison.  J. Spinal Disorders 12(5): 415-423.
  115. Mientjes*, M.I.V., Norman, R.W., Wells, R.P., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Assessment of an EMG-based method for continuous estimates of low back compression during three dimensional tasks and jobs.  Ergonomics 42(6): 868-879.
  116. Callaghan*, J.P., Patla, A.E., and McGill, S.M.  (1999) Low back three-dimensional joint forces, kinematics and kinetics during walking.  Clin. Biomech. 14: 203-216.
  117. McGill, S.M., and Callaghan, J.P.  (1999) Impact forces following the unexpected removal of a chair while sitting.  Accident Analysis and Prevention 31: 85-89.
  118. McGill, S.M., and Yingling, V.R.  (1999) Traction may enhance the imaging of spine injuries with plane radiographs: Implications for the laboratory versus the clinic.  Clin. Biomech. 14(4): 291-295.
  119. Boakes*, J., Peach, J.P., and McGill, S.M., (1998) Does methocarbamol affect fatigue markers in the low back electromyogram? J. EMG. Kinesiol. 8: 423-427.
  120. McGill, S.M. Invited Paper. (1999) Should industrial workers wear abdominal belts:  guidelines based on the recent literature.  Int. J. Industrial Ergonomics 23(5-6): 633-636.
  121. Juker, D., McGill, S.M., and Kropf, P.  (1998) Quantitative intramuscular myoelectric activity of lumbar portions of psoas and the abdominal wall during cycling.  J. Appl. Biomech. 14(4): 428-438.
  122. McGill, S.M.  Invited Paper.  (1998) Low back exercises: Evidence for improving exercise regimens.  Physical Therapy 78(7): 754-765.
  123. Brereton*, L.C., and McGill, S.M. (1998) Invited Paper. Frequency response of spine extensors during rapid isometric contractions: effects of muscle length and tension.  J. EMG Kinesiol. 8(4): 227-232.
  124. Peach*, J.P., and McGill, S.M.  (1998) Classification of low back pain with the use of spectral EMG parameters during submaximum isometric fatiguing contractions and recovery.  Spine 23(10): 1117-1123.
  125. Peach*, J.P., Gunning, J., and McGill, S.M.  (1998). Reliability of spectral EMG parameters of healthy back extensors during submaximum isometric fatiguing contractions and recovery.  J. EMG. and Kines. 8: 403-410.
  126. Peach*, J.P., Sutarno, C., and McGill, S.M.  (1998) 3D Kinematics and trunk muscle myoelectric activity of the asymptomatic young lumbar spine - A database.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab.  79(6): 663-669.
  127. Callaghan*, J.P., Gunning, J.L., and McGill, S.M.  (1998). Relationship between lumbar spine load and muscle activity during extensor exercises.  Physical Therapy 78(1): 8-18.
  128. Juker, D., McGill, S.M., Kropf, P., and Steffen, T. (1998). Quantitative intramuscular myoelectric activity of lumbar portions of psoas and the abdominal wall during a wide variety of tasks.  Med. Sci. Sports Ex. 30(2):301-310.
  129. Axler*, C., and McGill, S.M. (1997).  Low back loads over a variety of abdominal exercises: Searching for the safest abdominal challenge, Med.Sci.Sports.Ex. 29(6): 804-811.
  130. Yingling*, V.R., Callaghan, J.P., and McGill, S.M.  (1997). Dynamic loading affects the mechanical properties and failure site of porcine spines, Clin. Biomech. 12(5): 301-305. < Also reprinted in: Year Book of Sports Medicine, Mosby Year Book, 1998.
  131. McGill, S.M., Cholewicki, J., and Peach, J.P. (1997). Methodological considerations for using inductive sensors (3-SPACE ISOTRAK) to monitor 3-D orthopaedic joint motion, Clin. Biomech. 12(3): 190-194.
  132. McGill, S.M. (1997). Invited Paper: Biomechanics of Low Back Injury: Implications on current practice and the clinic.  J. Biomech. 30(5): 465-475. < Also selected for inclusion in the “Year Book of Chiropractic”, Mosby Year Book, 1999. >
  133. McGill, S.M. (1997).  Invited Manuscript:  Distribution of tissue loads in the low back during a variety of rehabilitation tasks.  J. Rehab. Res. Develop. 34(4): 448-458.
  134. Rafacz*,W., and McGill, S.M. (1996). Abdominal belts increase diastolic blood pressure, J.Occup.Env.Med. 38(9): 925-927.  < Also reprinted in:  Year Book of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mosby Year Book, 1998.>
  135. McGill, S.M., van Wijk, M., Axler, C.T., and Gletsu, M. (1996).  Spinal shrinkage:  Is it useful for evaluation of low back loads in the workplace.  Ergonomics, 39(1):  92-102.
  136. Cholewicki*, J., and McGill, S.M. (1996).  Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine:  Implications for injury and chronic low back pain.  Clin. Biomech. 11(1): 1-15.
  137. McGill, S.M., Juker, D., and Axler, C. (1996).  Correcting trunk muscle geometry obtained from MRI and CT scans of supine postures for use in standing postures.  J. Biomech. 29(5): 643-646.
  138. McGill, S.M. (1996).  A revised anatomical model of the abdominal musculature for torso flexion efforts.  J. Biomech. 29(7): 973-977.
  139. McGill, S.M., Juker, D., and Kropf., P. (1996).  Quantitative intramuscular myoelectric activity of quadratus lumborum during a wide variety of tasks, Clin. Biomech, 11(3):  170-172.
  140. McGill, S.M., Norman, R.W., and Cholewicki, J. (1996).  A simple polynomial for predicting low back compression in 3-D industrial tasks, Ergonomics 39(9): 1107-1118.
  141. McGill, S.M., Juker, D., and Kropf., P. (1996).  Appropriately placed surface EMG electrodes reflect deep muscle activity (psoas, quadratus lumborum, abdominal wall) in the lumbar spine.  J. Biomech. 29(11): 1503-1507.
  142. Potvin*, J.R., Norman, R.W., and McGill, S.M. (1996).  Mechanically corrected EMG for the continuous estimation of erector spine muscle loading during repetitive lifting.  Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 74: 119-132.
  143. McGill, S.M., and Axler, C.T. (1996).  Changes in spine height throughout 32 hours of bedrest:  Implications for bedrest and space travel on the low back, Arch. Phys.Med.Rehab. 38(9): 925-927.
  144. Cholewicki*, J., and McGill, S.M., Norman, R.W. (1995).  Comparison of muscle forces and joint load from an optimization and EMG assisted lumbar spine model:  Towards development of a hybrid approach.  J. Biomech. 28(3):  321-331.
  145. McGill, S.M. (1995).  The mechanics of torso flexion: situps and standing dynamic flexion manoeuvres.  Clin. Biomech., 10(4): 184-192.
  146. Cholewicki*, J., and McGill, S.M. (1995).  Relationship between muscle force and stiffness in the whole mammalian muscle:  A simulation study, J. Biomech. Engng., 117:339-342.
  147. Santaguida*, L., and McGill, S.M. (1995).  The Psoas Major Muscle:  A three-dimensional mechanical modelling study with respect to the spine based on MRI measurement.  J. Biomech. 28(3):  339-345.
  148. McGill, S.M., Sharratt, M.T., and Seguin, J.P. (1995).  Loads on spinal tissues during simultaneous lifting and ventilatory challenge, ERGONOMICS.  38:1772-1792.
  149. Callaghan*, J., and McGill, S.M. (1995).  Muscle activity and low back loads under external shear and compressive loading.   Spine, 20(9): 992-998.
  150. Sutarno*, C., and McGill, S.M. (1995).  Iso-velocity investigation of the lengthening behaviour of the erector spinae muscles.  Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 70(2): 146-153.
  151. Callaghan*, J.P., and McGill, S.M. (1995).  A comparison of dynamic compressive mechanical properties between frozen and fresh vertebral units.  J. Orthop. Res. 13:809-812.
  152. McGill, S.M., Jones, K., Bennett, G., and Bishop, P.J.  (1994).  Passive stiffness of the human neck in flexion, extension and lateral bending.  Clin. Biomech.  9:193-198.
  153. Koski*, A., and McGill, S.M. (1994) Shoulder Flexion Strength:  For use in occupational risk analysis, Clin. Biomech.  9:99-104.
  154. Cholewicki*, J., and McGill, S.M. (1994).  EMG Assisted Optimization:  A hybrid approach for estimating muscle forces in an indeterminate biomechanical model.  J. Biomech.  27(10): 1287-1289.
  155. McGill, S.M., Seguin, J., and Bennett, G. (1994).  Passive stiffness of the lumbar torso about the flexion-extension, lateral bend and axial twist axes:  The effect of belt wearing and breath holding.  Spine. 19(6):696-704.
  156. McGill, S.M., and Kippers, V. (1994).  Transfer of loads between lumbar tissues during the flexion relaxation phenomenon. Spine. 19(19):  2190-2196.
  157. McGill, S.M., Santaguida, L., and Stevens, J. (1993)  Measurement of the trunk musculature from T6 to L5 using MRI scans of 15 Young Males corrected for muscle fibre orientation, Clin. Biomech. 8:171-178.
  158. McGill, S.M. (1993).  Abdominal Belts In Industry:  A position paper on their assets, liabilities and use.  Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J.  54(12):752-754.
  159. Sharratt, M. T., and McGill, S.M. (1993).  The effect of variable breathing pattern on spinal loading during lifting. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc.  25(5):5115
  160. Cholewicki*, J., and McGill, S.M. (1992).  Lumbar posterior ligament involvement during extremely heavy lifts estimated from fluoroscopic measurements.  J. Biomech.  25(1):  17-28.
  161. McGill, S.M. (1992).  The influence of lordosis on axial trunk torque and trunk muscle myoelectric activity.  Spine. 17(10): 1187-1193.
  162. McGill, S.M., and Brown, S. (1992).  Creep response of the lumbar spine to prolonged full flexion, Clin. Biomech. 7: 43-46.
  163. McGill, S.M. (1992).  A myoelectrically based dynamic 3-D model to predict loads on lumbar spine tissues during lateral bending.  J. Biomech. 25(4): 395-414.
  164. Potvin*, J.R., Norman, R.W., Eckenrath, M.E., McGill, S.M., and Bennett, G.W. (1992).  Regression models for the prediction of dynamic L4/L5 compression forces during lifting.  Ergonomics. 35(2): 189-201.
  165. McGill, S.M. (1991).  Electromyographic activity of the abdominal and low back musculature during the generation of isometric and dynamic axial trunk torque:  Implications for lumbar mechanics.  J. Orthop. Res., 9:91-103.
  166. Cholewicki*, J., McGill, S.M., Wells, R.P., and Vernon, H. (1991).  A method for measuring vertebral kinematics from fluoroscopy.  Clin. Biomech. 6:73-78
  167. McGill, S.M. (1991).  The kinetic potential of the lumbar trunk musculature about three orthogonal orthopaedic axes in extreme postures.  Spine.  16(7): 809-815
  168. Potvin*, J.R., Norman, R.W., and McGill, S.M. (1991).  Reduction in anterior shear forces on the L4/L5 disc by the lumbar musculature.  Clin. Biomech. 6:88-96
  169. Cholewicki*, J., McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1991)  Lumbar Spine loads during lifting extremely heavy weights.  Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 23(10): 1179-1186.
  170. Potvin*, J., McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1991).  Trunk muscle and lumbar ligament contributions to dynamic lifts with varying degrees of trunk flexion.  Spine. 16(9): 1099-1107.
  171. McGill, S.M., Norman, R.W., and Sharratt, M.T. (1990).  The effect of an abdominal belt on trunk muscle activity and intra-abdominal pressure during squat lifts.  Ergonomics, 33(2): 147-160.
  172. McGill, S.M., and Sharratt, M.T. (1990).  The relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and trunk EMG. Clin. Biomech., 5:59-67.
  173. McGill, S.M., and Hoodless, K. (1990).  Measured and modelled static and dynamic axial trunk torsion during twisting in males and females.  J. Biomed. Engng., 12: 403-409.
  174. Sullivan*, A., and McGill, S.M. (1990).  Changes in spine length during and following seated whole body vibration.  Spine, 15(12):1257-1260.
  175. McGill, S.M., Thorstensson, A. and Norman, R.W. (1989).  Non-rigid response of the trunk to dynamic axial loading: An evaluation of current modelling assumptions.  Clin. Biomech., 4:45-50.
  176. McGill, S.M. (1989).  Review Paper: Recent advances in lumbar mechanics with relevance to clinicians.  J. Can. Chiro. Assn., 33(2): 82-92.
  177. McGill, S.M., Patt, N., and Norman, R.W. (1988).  Measurement of the trunk musculature of active males using CT scan radiography: Implications for force and moment generating capacity about the L4/L5 joint.  J. Biomech., 21(4): 329-341.
  178. McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1988).  The potential of lumbodorsal fascia forces to generate back extension moments during squat lifts.  J. Biomed. Engng., 10: 312-318.
  179. McGill, S.M. (1988).  Estimation of force and extensor moment contributions of the disc and ligaments at L4/L5.  Spine, 12:1395-1402.
  180. McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1987).  Effects of an anatomically detailed erector spinae model on L4/L5 disc compression and shear.  J. Biomech., 20(6): 591-600.
  181. McGill, S.M. and Norman, R.W. (1987).  An assessment of intra-abdominal pressure as a viable mechanism to reduce spinal compression.  Ergonomics, 30(11): 1565-1588.
  182. McGill, S.M. (1987).  A biomechanical perspective of sacro-iliac pain.  Clinical Biomechanics, 2(3): 145-151.
  183. McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1986).  The Volvo Award for 1986:  Partitioning of the L4/L5 dynamic moment into disc, ligamentous and muscular components during lifting.  Spine, 11(7): 666-678.
  184. McGill, S.M., and Norman, R.W. (1985).  Dynamically and statically determined low back moments during lifting.  J. Biomech., 18(12): 877-885.
  185. McGill, S.M. and Dainty, D. (1984).  A computer analysis of energy transfers in childrens' walking with crutches.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab., 65(3): 115-120.
  186. McGill, S.M. and Dainty, D. (1984).  Suggestions for modifications to childrens' crutches.  Physiotherapy Canada, 36(2): 75-78.

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